Stronehenge symbols plan

Stonehenge had a Roof

Stonehenge complete looked something like this.


Designed and built by our talented ancestors.

Today’s Stonehenge is just a ruin. The few remaining stones are those too big to move and use elsewhere …but their location and form provide ample evidence to indicate how the original building looked.

The first-century B.C. Greek historian, Diodorus Siculus, cites a lost account set down three centuries earlier, which described “a magnificent precinct sacred to Apollo and a notable spherical temple” on a large isle and in the far north, opposite what is now France.

Beneath the thatch was a trussed oak-frame roof with wind’ols (windows) on the axis.


From the outside Stonehenge was conical – like a large round-house. Inside was an oval hall beneath a spherical roof!

The five massive trilithons, the inner ‘horse-shoe’, were structural piers erected to support a trussed core roof. Radiating rafters, with their lower end resting on the outer stone circle, were added after this core -roof was formed.





Bluestones within the trilithon horse-shoe supported the front edge of the gallery that over-looked the hall.
Bluestones supported the gallery


The central ‘core-roof’ is key to the design’s structural integrity; without this the weight of the roof would force the stone-circle outwards.

At the core of Stonehenge was an oval hall over-looked by a circular gallery 







Evidence exist to show Stonehenge as we know it is the ruin of a complex building.

Evidence exists to show Stonehenge, as we know it, is the ruin of a complex building.

A covered walk ran full circle around the buildings outer wall. Compacted chalk foundations for the wall still exists below ground, between the outer blue-stones.




Stonehenge, when built, looked something like this. Axial openings flooded the interior with light. solstice ceremonies took place still, magically enhanced by this wonderful building.


  1. The horse-shoe of trilithons are set to a pre-drawn design – more below.
  2. The buried blue-stone, unaffected by wear and tear, is clearly fashioned as a lintel.
  3. The shaping of other blue-stones indicate structural purpose – grooves to accommodate door pole-hinges and tapered support stones.
  4. The trilithons are perfectly positioned to take four large evenly-spaced trusses. See plans below.
  5. An ‘oval’ pattern, formed by the feet of the trusses, fits neatly on top of the trilithons. See below.
  6. The height difference between the trilithons is necessary to raise all four trusses from horizontal to vertical. This exists – see below.
  7. The core and lower slopes together form a structurally stable roof. See below.
  8. The outer blue-stone circle is all that remains of a wall located where midway support for the lower roof slopes is needed. This wall also served to enclosed the building. Compacted chalk, laid as footing for this, still lies under the ground.
  9. The Blue-stone oval has long been acknowledged to exist. This fits perfectly with the setting out plan and design shown here.


Ask yourself ‘would Bronze-age man go to so much trouble to source, move, shape and erect such massive stones unless for a very good purpose?’

Stonehenge’s designer was talented and amazing! His or her design was simple to construct, wonderful inside and – best of all – there is evidence that  health and safety had been considered. 

Tintern Abbey, ruined 500 years ago has no flooring and no roof.
Tintern Abbey, ruined 500 years ago has no flooring and no roof.

Look at our Abbey ruins; tall standing walls remain, roof timbers are long gone as is the flooring. Easily accessed stone is found ‘re-used’ in nearby buildings. No fragment of Stonehenge’s roof will have lasted 4000 years. My initial thought, that to span 15 baunts (16 metres) was impossible, as too large, was answered by research; Westminster Hall spans 20 metres and that was built in 1097, well before machines and power tools were invented!

The trusses were formed from cranked oak timber. It's likely they were of good design, much as the stones are carefully shaped.
The trusses were formed from cranked oak timber. It’s likely they were of good design, much as the stones are carefully shaped.

To form the large trusses, only eight 15-baunt (16-metre) oak timbers with angled profile are required. Bronze-age oaks were very likely bigger and better than those available today. Apparently ship-building in past-times robbed the UK of the good-sized oaks!

A civilisation capable of moving and shaping 50 ton stones  can easily fell and shape the timber for a roof!

The fact that most timbers used are curved is no consequence as each piece was shaped by hand. Our obsession with straight-timber come from using power-tools.


At the mouth of Stonehenge’s horse-shoe were additional supports for the roof, and a ceremonial entrance. (Little remains of these. I’m asking for a leap of faith from you, to trust the pattern derived from the evidence above. When the various parts of the building are right, the clues and patterns fit very perfectly.)

Most designers aim to create a building that appears balanced from the outside. As Stonehenge’s oval hall was offset, to create a symmetrical roof above this the designer used a clever technique involving two concentric ring-beams. This centralised the roof.

View of the roof from above.


Basic technique is shown in this sketch.

Raising a truss_resize.


All four trusses cannot be raised this way if the trilithons were all of similar height. This explains their height difference.


After completing the core-roof, sixteen principal rafters were added and linked by more ring-perlins. On top of this would be common-rafters, then probably woven-wattle panels to support thatch. Stonehenge was effectively a ‘giant round-house’.

Three further wind’ol forms are shown on each side and two more lower ones on the ends. There’s no evidence for positions of these other than logic, and a tendancy to favour the number three and it’s multiples.

The word window is derived from wind-holes, shortened to wind’ol, then window. Bronze-age man had shutters not glass.

My first sketch is below.first sketch of the roof_resize


• Consider bronze-age people’s needs as similar to ours – for shelter, food and fun, enjoyed with family and friends. That they worked, crafted and traded is obvious. I expect they enjoyed both religious and secular parties, celebrations and performances.
• Remember – Stonehenge was in Wessex (now Wiltshire) in England, where for eight months of the year, weather is unpredictable and usually cool.
• That it’s likely folk were capable, intelligent and ingenius.
• Remember – bronze-age people were not stone-age folk; they didn’t wear furry loin-cloths!

Ordinary capable people.