Stonehenge; Set using ancient alchemy symbols - water, earth, air and Fire.

Stonehenge had a Roof

THE ORIGINAL STONEHENGE – AN AMAZING AND BEAUTIFUL TEMPLE. 

Stonehenge: the basic roof .
Stonehenge, with structural roof timbers

Today’s Stonehenge is just a ruin. The few remaining stones are those too big to move and use elsewhere …but their location and form provide considerable evidence that shows how the original building looked.

There is nothing to show Stonehenge was not a building; a ‘missing roof’ is a consequence of time, no Bronze age building exists with it’s original roof intact.

The first-century B.C. Greek historian, Diodorus Siculus, cites a lost account set down three centuries earlier, which described “a magnificent precinct sacred to Apollo and a notable spherical temple” on a large isle and in the far north, opposite what is now France. 

Is this a reference to Stonehenge with it’s roof?

From the outside Stonehenge was roughly conical – like a large round-house. Inside an oval hall, set between the trilithons, was flooded with light by high level openings on the solstice axis. These openings (windows, wind-holes) are indicated by the oval, rather than circular form, of the massive core stones.

The five massive trilithons, the inner ‘horse-shoe’, were structural piers erected to support a huge, trussed, core roof. Radiating rafters, with their lower end resting on the outer stone circle, were added after this core -roof was formed.

The central 'core-roof' is key to Stonehenge's roof's structural integrity. Without this the weight of the roof would force the stone-circle outwards.onehenge - core roof

The trussed core roof rests on the Trilithons. The mechanism for erecting the Trilithons explains why they are different heights.

 

 

A core wall on the line of the blue-stone circle as indicated by the blue-stone lintels. These were once part of doors into the Temple. An outer sheltered walk existed between the blue-stone circle and the sarsen circle. Galleries overlooked the hall.

A covered walk (shown here without the roof) ran full circle around the buildings outer wall. Compacted chalk foundations for this wall exists below ground, between the outer blue-stones.
View of the galleries and structural roof timbers.
View of the galleries and structural roof timbers.

Stonehenge, when built, looked something like this. Axial openings flooded the interior with light. Solstice ceremonies were magically enhanced when the sun shone in to light up the building interior.

FOR THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS:

DESIGN AND PATTERN EVIDENCE DOES NOT CONFLICT WITH, NOR CONTRADICT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE. THIS VALUABLE FIELD OF STUDY HAS LONG BEEN OVERLOOKED.

EVIDENCE THAT STONEHENGE WAS ONCE A TEMPLE.

  1. The horse-shoe of trilithons are set to a measured, symbolic design – more below.
  2. The buried blue-stone, unaffected by wear and tear, is a lintel from a doorway.
  3. The shape of other blue-stones indicate structural purpose. Grooves were made to accommodate door pole-hinges. Tapering blue-stones were fashioned to support posts above, those wedged-shaped in profile, were dressed to fit as part of a complex structure.
  4. The trilithons are perfectly positioned to take four large evenly-spaced trusses. See plan above. That these are central and symmetrical,  with two each side of the cross axis, would not happen by chance. This indicates design. The spacing is perfect for trusses. The span is too large for a floor.
  5. An ‘oval’ pattern, formed by the feet of the trusses, fits neatly on top of the trilithons. That this exists in so perfect and regular form could not happen by chance. See below.
  6. The height difference between the trilithons is necessary to raise all four trusses from horizontal to vertical. This exists – see below. It also helps confirm that the fourlines indentified are not floor joists.
  7. The core and lower slopes together form a structurally stable roof of suitable pitch for thatch. See below.
  8. The outer blue-stone circle is all that remains of a wall located to form midways  support for the lower roof slopes. That this wall served to enclosed the building is indicated by the blue-stone lintels with doors. Compacted chalk footings exist below ground on this wall line. These were laid where the ground had been disturbed between the Q and R holes.
  9. The Blue-stone oval has long been acknowledged to exist. This fits perfectly with the setting out plan and design shown here.

IF STONEHENGE WERE RECTANGULAR IN FORM WOULD YOU DOUBT THAT IT ONCE WAS A BUILDING? 

Would Bronze-age man go to so much trouble to source, move, shape and erect 75 massive sarsen stones unless for a very good purpose?’

Stonehenge’s designer was talented. His or her design was wonderfully symbolic, simple to construct, beautiful inside. Circumstantial evidence exists that  health and safety had been considered. 

Tintern Abbey, ruined 500 years ago has no flooring and no roof.
Tintern Abbey, ruined 500 years ago has no flooring and no roof.

Look at our Abbey ruins; tall standing walls remain, roof timbers are long gone as is the flooring. Easily accessed stone is found ‘re-used’ in nearby buildings. No fragment of Stonehenge’s roof will have lasted 4000 years. My initial thought, that to span 15 baunts (16 metres) was impossible, as too large, was answered by research; Westminster Hall spans 20 metres and that was built in 1097, well before machines and power tools were invented!

The trusses were formed from cranked oak timber. It's likely they were of good design, much as the stones are carefully shaped.
The trusses were formed from cranked oak timber. It’s likely they were of good design, much as the stones are carefully shaped.

The trusses are large but not impossibly so. Only eight very long, 15-baunt (16-metre), oak timbers with angled profile are required. The rest of the timbers are not of exceptional size. Bronze-age oaks were very likely bigger and better than those available today. Apparently ship-building in past-times robbed the UK of the good-sized oaks! Green oak is soft and easily shaped.

A civilisation capable of moving and shaping 50 ton stones  can easily fell and shape the timber for a roof. It’ likely that the many hammer-stones, about Stonehenge, were used to shape timber.

The fact that most timbers used are curved is no consequence as each piece was shaped by hand. Our obsession with straight-timber come from using power-tools.

THE CORE ROOF.

At the mouth of Stonehenge’s horse-shoe were additional supports for the roof, and a ceremonial entrance. (Little remains of these and for three very good reasons they were not solid sarsen stone.) Patterns indicate where these supports once stood.

Most designers aim to create a building that appears balanced from the outside. As Stonehenge’s oval hall was offset, to create a symmetrical roof above this the designer used a clever technique involving two concentric ring-beams. This centralised the roof.

View of the roof from above.

RAISING THE TRUSSES.

Basic technique is shown in this sketch.

Raising a truss_resize.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

All four trusses cannot be raised this way if the trilithons were all of similar height. This explains their height difference.

THE WHOLE ROOF

After completing the core-roof, sixteen principal rafters were added and linked by more ring-perlins. On top of this would be common-rafters, then probably woven-wattle panels to support thatch. Stonehenge was effectively a ‘giant round-house’.

Three further wind’ol forms are shown on each side and two more lower ones on the ends. There’s no evidence for positions of these other than logic, and a tendancy to favour the number three and it’s multiples.

The word window is derived from wind-holes, shortened to wind’ol, then window. Bronze-age man had shutters, not glass.

My first sketch is below.first sketch of the roof_resize